THE ROLE OF TRANSNATIONAL ACTORS IN BUILDING CLIMATE-RESILIENT CITIES: CASE STUDIES ON DAGUPAN CITY AND SORSOGON CITY
The paper seeks to interrogate how transnational actors (TAs), alongside other actors, influenced climate change governance in two multi-hazard-prone coastal cities in the Philippines, namely, Sorsogon City (in Sorsogon Province) and Dagupan City (in Pangasinan Province), both located in Luzon. Sorsogon City’s climate change actions were largely initiated under the “Cities and Climate Change Initiative” project of UN-HABITAT which started in 2009. Through this project, the city was able to craft measures and strategies to strengthen its adaptive capacity. Before the project, the city was rated as having low adaptive capacity and high vulnerability to tropical cyclones,storm surges, extreme rainfall/flooding, increased precipitation, temperature variability, and sea-level rise. Now, the city is hailed as a climate change champion. Like Sorsogon City, Dagupan City is vulnerable to hazards mentioned above but with two additional ones – earthquake and liquefaction. However, unlike the former, the lattery inked in June 2011 an agreement with ICLEI-Local Government for Sustainability to draw-up tailored climate change strategies under the Asian Cities Adapt Project. This is an interesting case because, unlike Sorsogon City, Dagupan City has had long experiences with disaster risk management given its long years of experiences with many disasters, especially with earthquakes and floods. Given these two cases, it is interesting to ask: Up to what extent did the TAs affect urban climate change governance in the two cities? How well were they able to work with local actors?
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