• Sarayuth Chaileuangleu Mahasarakham University
  • Preeda Chaiya Mahasarakham University
  • Adarsh Batra Assumption University
  • John Barnes Assumption University
Keywords: Culinary arts, program development, chef competency, food service industry


This study aims to investigate the key factors influencing the development of culinary arts programs in Thailand, considering the instructional and learning competencies of professional chefs. This quantitative study examines the causal relationships between the key competencies and the development of culinary arts programs. The findings indicate that the competency of a professional chef has a positive effect on their instructional competency, while the instructional competency also has an effect on learning competency; these three key factors were found to be influential variables affecting the development of a culinary arts program. The results will be applied as a guideline for culinary arts program development in Thailand. The study also contributes new knowledge, skills, competency standards, implementation, and evaluation for the success of the chef profession, which is limited in the food service industry, particularly in the context of Thailand.


Download data is not yet available.


Altavilla, C., Pérez, P.C., & Tuells, j. (2019). High cooking skills do not lead to healthy Mediterranean eating habits. Focus on catering students. Foods Analysis and Nutrition Group, University of Alicante, Spain. Department of Community Nursing, Preventive Medicine, Public Health and History of Science, University of Alicante, Spain

Ambrus, A. (2014). Teaching Mathematical Problem-Solving with the Brain in Mind: How can opening a closed problem help? Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, 4(2), 105–120.

Ambrus, A. & Krisztina, B. (2016). Teaching Mathematical Problem Solving in Hungary for Students Who Have Average Ability in Mathematics. In Felmer, P., Pehkonen, E., Kilpatrick, J. (Eds), Posing and Solving Mathematical Problems (pp. 137–156). Switzerland: Springer

Billett, S. (2016). Apprenticeship as a mode of learning and model of education. Education + Training, Vol. 58 Issue: 6, pp.613-628, https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-01-2016-0001

Boam, R. & Sparrow, P. (1992). Designing and Achieving Competency: a competency-based approach to developing people and organization. London: McGraw-Hill.

Boyatzis, R.E. (1982). The Competent Manager: A Model for Effective Performance, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.

Colace, F., De Santo, M. & Greco, L. (2014). E-Learning and Personalized Learning Path: A Proposal Based on the Adaptive Educational Hypermedia System. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 9 (2), 9-16.

Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural Equation Modeling with Amos Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming (2nd ed.). New York Taylor and Francis Group.

Chaiya, P. (2016). An Investigation of Service Expectation and Performance of the Japanese Restaurants in Bangkok. July 19-22, 2016, International Proceedings: Hospitality and Tourism Management Conference 2016: Making an Impact: Creating Constructive Conservations, The University of Surrey’s International Tourism and Hospitality and events Conference.

Chen, W., Wei, X. & Zhu, K. (2018). Engaging voluntary contributions in online communities: a hidden Markov model, MIS Quarterly, Vol. 42 No. 1, pp. 83-100.

Christensen, M., & Stuart, R.E. (2019). Teaching science to chefs: The benefits, challenges and opportunities. Westminster Kingsway College, 76 Vincent Square, London SW1P 2PD, UK. Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

Employment and Training Administration (ETA). (2016). United States Department of Labor. Retrieved January 13, 2016, from http://www.doleta.gov

Fooladi, E., Hopia, A., Lasa, D., & Arboleya, J. (2019). Chefs and researchers: Culinary practitioners' views on interaction between gastronomy and sciences. International journal of gastronomy and food science, 15, 6-14. doi:10.1016/j.ijgfs.2018.11.003

Hamidi, M., & Indrastuti, S. (2012). Influence Analysis of Competence: Educational Background on Performance Polikteknik Bengkalis Lecturer of Leadership Perspective. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Industry and Technology, 2012.

Han, J., Yin, H., & Boylan, M. (2016). Teacher motivation: Definition, research development and implications for teachers. Cogent Education, 3(1), 1-18.

Hair, J.F., Babin, B., Money, A.H., & Samouel, P. (2003). Essentials of business research methods. Danvers, MA: John Wiley & Sons.

Hatfield, S. R. (2001). The Student learning self-study: Choices and opportunities. New Directions for Higher Education, 113, 23-33. doi:10.1002/he.2.abs

Hegarty, J. A. (2004). Standing the heat. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.

Henry, S. & Chiara, F. (2015). Crowd science user contribution patterns and their implications, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 112 No. 3, pp. 679-684.

Hirsh-Pasek, K., Zosh, J.M., Golinkoff, R.M., Gray, J.H., Robb, M.B. & Kaufman, J. (2015). Putting Education in “Educational” Apps Lessons from the Science of Learning. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 16(1), 3-34.

Holzweiss, P. C., Joyner, S. A., Fuller, M. B., Henderson, S., & Young, R. (2014). Online graduate students’ perceptions of best learning experiences. Distance Education, 35(3), 311-323. doi:10.1080/01587919.2015.955262

Hu, M.-L. M. (2010). Developing a core competency model of innovative culinary development. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(4), 582–590. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2009.10.024.

Kaplan, D. (2011). The guide to cooking schools: Cooking schools, courses, vacations apprenticeships and wine programs throughout the world. Retrieved July 18, 2016, from http://cookingcareer.shawguides.com

Kirkpatrick, D. L., & Kirkpatrick, J. D. (2006). Evaluating training programs: The four levels. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.

Koku, P.S. (2015). A view from the street: an exploratory study of consumer attitudes toward offshoring of professional Services Marketing, Vol. 29 (2), pp. 150-159.

Ko, W.-H. (2012). A study of the relationships among effective learning, professional competence, and learning performance in culinary field. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 11(1), 12–20. doi:10.1016/j.jhlste.2012.02.010

Krejcie, R.V. & Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610.

Lin, S.Y., & Chang, Y.I. (2010). To reestablish vocation education in higher education. Technological and Vocation Education Newsletter, 37, 2-7.

Marneros, S., & Gibbs, P. (2015). Evaluation of the link between hospitality courses and career success in Cyprus: perceptions of industry professionals. Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning.

McClelland, D.C. (1970). Test for Competency: rather than intelligence American Psychologists. Vol.17, No.7, pp.57-83.

McMurtry, K. (2013). Designing online training for faculty new to online teaching. Journal of Applied Learning Technology, 3(2), 20-25.

Pedaste M., Mäeots, M., Siiman, L. A., de Jong, T., van Riesen, S. A. N., Kamp, E. T., Manoli, C. C., Zacharia, Z. C., & Tsourlidaki, E. (2015). Phases of inquiry-based learning: Definitions and the inquiry cycle. Educational Research Review 14, 47–61

Porter, G. W., King, J. A., Goodkin, N. F., & Chan, C. K. Y. (2012). Experiential learning in a common core curriculum: Student expectations, evaluations, and the way forward. International Education Studies, 5(3), 24-38. Retrieved September 09, 2019 from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1022978094?accountid=35796

Rahman, M. M. (2012, April 1). Effects of Intellectual Ability, Individual Learning and Internal Control Against cup of Competency and Performance Lecturer (Study B Study Program Accredited Management in Private University of Surabaya. Economics Magazine. Years No. 22.

Razmerita, L., Kirchner, K. & Nabeth, T. (2014). Social media in organizations: leveraging personal and collective knowledge processes, Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, Vol. 24 No. 1, pp. 74-93.

Roche, C. P. (2012). Canadian Professional Chefs’ Perceived Value of Formal Culinary Education and its Relationship with Industry Success. Florida Atlantic University. Boca Raton, Florida. Published by ProQuest LLC. Retrieved October 11, 2016

Ronna, C. T., & Laurie, C. (2003). Indexes of Item-Objective Congruence for Multidimensional Items, International Journal of Testing, 3(2): 163-171.

Ruhanen, L. (2005). Bridging the divide between theory and practice: Experiential learning approaches for tourism and hospitality management education. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 5(4), 33-51.

Sauer, J. (2018). New Hampshire Survey of Employers: Finding, Keeping, Recruiting Qualified Workers. Washington, DC: AARP Research, September 2018. https://doi.org/10.26419/res.00238.001

Shani, A., Belhassen, Y., & Soskolne, D. (2013). Teaching professional ethics in culinary studies. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Manage-ment, Vol. 25 Issue: 3, pp.447-464, https://doi.org/10.1108/09596111311311062

Sherman, E. (2015). Restaurants are facing a serious chef shortage. Fortune. Retrieved February 02, 2016, from http://fortune.com/2015/08/09/restaurants-chef-shortage/

Stufflebeam, D. L. (2001). Evaluation models. New Directions for Evaluation, 89, 8-98. doi:10.1002/ev.3

Suhairom, N., Musta’amal, A.H., Amin, N.F.M., & Johari, N.K.A. (2014). The development of competency model and instrument for competency measurement: The research methods. Department of Technical & Engineering Education, Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor, Malaysia. School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis

Suskie, L. (2009). Assessing student learning: A common sense guide (2nd ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Symonds, P. M. (1924). On the Loss of Reliability in Ratings Due to Coarseness of the Scale. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 7(6), 456461. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0074469

Tularam, G.A. & Hulsman, K. (2015). A Study of Students’ Conceptual, Procedural Knowledge, Logical Thinking and Creativity During the First Year of Tertiary Mathematics. International Journal for Mathematics Teaching & Learning, 484: http://www.cimt.org.uk/

Tuparova, D., Kaseva, M., & Tuparov, G. (2014). Development of Key Competences through ICT in Primary School. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 2952–2956. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.686.

Vargas-Sáncheza, A., & López-Guzmánb, T. (2018). Protection of Culinary Knowledge Generation in Michelin-Starred Restaurants. The Spanish case. Faculty of Business Studies and Tourism, Management and Marketing Department, Plaza de la Merced, 11, E21002 Huelva, Spain, Department of Applied Economics, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence, ceiA3, Spain, University of Córdoba, Spain, C/ Adarve, 30, 14071 Córdoba, Spain

Verstegen, D. M. L., de Jong, N., van Berlo, J., Camp, A., Könings, K. D., van Merriënboer, J. J. D., & Donkers, J. (2016). How E-learning Can Support PBL Groups: A Systematic Literature Review. In S. Bridges, L.K. Chan, & C. Hmelo-Silver (Eds.), Educational Technologies in Medical and Health Sciences Education, Advances in Medical Education. (5) 9-34. NY: Springer

Wegerif, R., Li, L. & Kaufman, J.C. (2015). The Routledge International Handbook of Research on Teaching Thinking. Routledge.

How to Cite
Chaileuangleu, S., Chaiya, P., Batra, A., & Barnes, J. (2021). FACTORS AFFECTING THE CULINARY ARTS PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT FOR PREPARING PROFESSIONAL CHEFS IN THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY IN THAILAND. Social Science Asia, 7(1), 1-14. Retrieved from https://socialscienceasia.nrct.go.th/index.php/SSAsia/article/view/228
Research Article