A CORRELATION BETWEEN THAI TONE PERCEPTION AND WRITING SKILL IN LEARNERS USING THE “THAI TON APPLICATION”
The use of education applications in language learning is rapidly growing. This research aims to analyze the relationship between the tonal perception ability and writing ability of low Thai language proficiency students using the Thai Tone Application. The study participants were 100 Chinese students studying Thai language in Rajabhat Nakhon Ratchasrima Thailand and in Kaohsiung University in Taiwan. The participants were divided equally into two groups: 50 students were placed in the experimental group (Group 1) who studied in class using the application and 50 students were placed in the control group (Group 2) who studied in class without using the application. One-syllable words were used to examine the participants’ tonal perception and writing skill. The findings showed a positive moderate correlation between tonal perception and writing skill after using the application in the experimental group. In contrast, the correlation between tonal perception and writing skill in the control group who learned without using the application was negative, indicating that having good tonal perception did result in a moderate writing skill level. The results of the present study further indicate that instructors play a significant role in students’ language learning and that use of the application as a supplemental material may enhance learning outcomes. The significance of minimal pair approach is also discussed.
Aoyama, K., Flege, J. E., Guion, S. G., Akahane-Yamada, R., & Yamada, T. (2004). Perceived phonetic dissimilarity and L2 speech learning: The case of Japanese /r/ and English /l/ and /r/. Journal of Phonetics 32, 233-250.
Barlow, J. A. & Gierut, J. A. (2002). Minimal pairs approaches to phonological remediation. Seminars in Speech and Language 23, 157-67.
Bartz , A. E. (1999). Basic Statistical Concepts. New Jersey : Preentice - Hall.
Bergman, O. (1999). Wait for me! Reader control of narration rate in talking books, International Reading Association’s Reading. Retrieved January 5 from http://www.readingonline.org/articles/artindex.asp?HREF=/articles/bergman/index.html.
Berninger, V. W. (2000). Development of language by hand and its connections to language by ear, mouth and eye. Topics in Language Disorders 20.4, 65–84.
Best, C. T. (2019). The Diversity of Tone Languages and the Roles of Pitch Variation in Non-tone Languages: Considerations for Tone Perception Research. Front Psycho 10, 1-7.
Blachman, B. A. (2000). Phonological Awareness. In M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, P.D.Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (pp. 483–502). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Boonprasert, Y. (2019). An Annual Report on LD Children in Educational Service Area. An Unpublished Survey Report.
Bozorgian, H. (2012). The relationship between listening and other language skills in International English Language Testing System. Theory and Practice in Language Studies 2.4, 657-663.
Buranasinvattanakul, K. (2018). Thai language teaching strategies for communication to non-native of Thai learners. Journal of Liberal Arts 18.2, 164-178.
Chichareon, S. (2011). Tonal Reading-Skill Drills Exercise Book for Students Learning Thai as a Foreign Language. Unpublished M.A. Thesis Graduate School, Srinakharinwirot University.
Dodd, B., Crosbie, S., McIntosh, B., Holm, A., Harvey, C. Liddy, M., Fontyne, K., Pinchin, B. & Rigby, H. (2008). The impact of selecting different contrasts in phonological therapy, International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 10.5, 334-345.
Elbert, M., Dinnsen, D. A., & Powell, T. W. (1984). On the prediction of phonologic generalization learning patterns. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 49, 309–317.
Fletcher J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Shankweiler, D. P., Katz, L., Liberman, I. Y., Stuebing, K. K., Francis, D. J., Fowler, A. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (1994). Cognitive profiles of reading disability: Comparisons of discrepancy and low achievement definitions. Journal of Educational Psychology 86, 6–23.
Flege, J. E. & Schmidt, A. M. (1995). Native speakers of Spanish show rate-dependent processing of English stop consonants. Phonetica 52, 90-111.
Flege, J. E., Bohn, O-S., & Jang, S. (1997). The production and perception of English vowels by native speakers of German, Korean, Mandarin, and Spanish. Journal of Phonetics 25, 437-470.
Gierut J. A. (1992). The conditions and course of clinically induced phonological change. Journal Speech Hear Resource 35, 1049–1063.
Hattori, K. & Iverson, P. (2010). Examination of the Relationship between L2 Perception and Production: An Investigation of English/r/-/l/Perception and Production by Adult Japanese Speakers. Second Language Studies: Acquisition, Learning, Education and Technology. Retrieved December 20, 2019 from http://www.gavo.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/L2WS2010/papers/L2WS2010_P2-04.pdf
Jia, G., Strange, W., Wu, Y., Collado, J., & Guan, Q. (2006). Perception and production of English vowels by Mandarin speakers: Age-related difference vary with amount of L2 exposure. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 119, 1118-1130.
Keys, K. & Walker, R. (2002). Ten questions on the phonology of English as an international language. ELT Journal 56.3, 298-302.
Kim, C.-W. & Park, S.-G. (1995). Pronunciation problems of Australian students learning Korean: Intervocalic liquid consonants. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics 12, 183-202.
Kim, H. S. (2013). Emerging mobile apps to improve English listening skills. Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning 16.2, 11-30.
Levis, J. (2005). Changing contexts and shifting paradigms in pronunciation teaching. TESOL Quarterly 39.3, 369-377.
Lowenberg, P. (2002). Accessing English Proficiency in the Expanding Corcle. World Englishes 21.3, 431-435.
Luangthongkum, T. (2015). Research and Development on E-learning Exercises to Solve Pronunciation Problem When Reading and Speaking Thai. Bangkok : Parbpim Ltd., Part.
Matsumoto, S. (2011). Textbook on “Thai Flowers” for Teaching Thai Language and Culture to Japanese Learners. Unpublished M. A. Thesis, Graduate School, Srinakharinwirot University.
McArthur, T. (2001). World English and world Englishes: Trends, tensions, varieties, and standards. Language Teaching 34, 1-20.
Phiboon, S. (2016). Research-based learning. An Unpublished Report on Research-based learning at KM Hotel, Phayao 4-5 July 2016, Thailand.
Puttamata, J. (2011). An error analysis of Thai writing of Third Year Thai-major Exchange Students from Department of Asian Languages and Culture, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies in 2009, People’s Republic of China. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Nakhon Phanom University 9.3, 79-87.
Saben, C. B., & Ingham, J. C. (1991). The effects of minimal pairs treatment on the speech-sound production of two children with phonologic disorders. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 34(5), 1023–1040.
Sakai, M. & Moorman, C. (2018). Can perception training improve the production of second language phonemes? A meta-analytic review of 25years of perception training research. Applied Psycholinguistics 39.1, 187-224.
Sathiansukon, S. (2010). Errors in Thai Writing Made by Chinese Students: A case study of University of Thai Chamber of Commerce, Academic Year 2008-2009 Retrieved December 2, 2019 from http://www.utcc.ac.th/thesis/academicweek/2553/huminities/sureewan.pdf
Schmidt, A. M. & Flege, J. E. (1995). Effects of speaking rate changes on native and non-native production. Phonetica 52, 41-54.
Shanahan, T. (2006). Relations among oral language, reading and writing development,” in Handbook of Writing Research, A. C. MacArthur, S. Graham, and J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), The Guidford Press.
Simser, J. I. 1993. Auditory-verbal intervention: Infants and toddlers. Volta Review 95.3, 217-229.
So, C. & Best C. T. (2014). Phonetic influences on English and French listeners' assimilation of Mandarin tones to native prosodic categories. Stud. Second Lang. Acq. 36, 195–221. 10.1017/S0272263114000047
Srisunthornthai, J. (2013). The effect of the mother tongue on Thai writing skill of the Chinese students. Language and Linguistics 32.1, 90-121.
Suwantarathip, O. & Orawiwatnakul, W. (2015). Using mobile-assisted exercises to support students' vocabulary skill development. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology 14.1, 163-171.
Teeranon, P. (2015). Acoustic study and perception of Thai tones in learners studying Thai as a foreign language. Unpublished research report HERP, Office of Higher Education Commission. (In Thai)
Tumtavitikul, A. (2013a). Read and Write Thai. Retrieved July 30 2015 from https://research.rdi.ku.ac.th/forest/Search.aspx?keyword=learn%20to%20read%20and%20write%20Thai
Tumtavitikul, A. (2013b). Thai Speech Tablet. Retrieved July 30 2015 from https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.simple.thaisoundtablet&hl=en
Vellutino, F. R. and Scanlon, D. M. (1986). Phonological coding, phonological awareness and reading ability: evidence from a longitudinal and experimental study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 33, 321–363.
Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., & Spearing, D. (1995). Semantic and phonological coding in poor and normal readers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 59.1, 76- 123.
Viberg, O. and Grönlund, Å. (2012). Mobile assisted language learning : A literature review. The 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning, mLearn 2012, Helsinki. Retrieved from http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:du-10659>.
Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1994). Development of reading-related phonological processing abilities: Evidence of bi-directional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 30, 73–87.
Yalcinkaya, F., Muluk, N. B.& Sahin,S. (2009). Effects of listening ability on speaking, writing and reading skills of children who were suspected of auditory processing difficulty. International Journal of Pediatric torhinolaryngology 73.8, 1137–1142.
Yip, M. (2002). Tone. Cambridge textbooks in linguistics. CUP, Cambridge, England
Copyright (c) 2021 National Research Council of Thailand
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The article published and information contained in this journal such as text, graphics, logos and images is copyrighted by and proprietary to the National Research Council of Thailand.
The article will be published under a CC-BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org). This license means that anyone may freely read, download, distribute and make the article available to the public (in printed and electronic form), provided that the author and the journal as the source are acknowledged, whereas no commercial use is allowed and the work may not be altered, transformed or serve as the basis for a derivative work.