A SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS APPROACH TO MANAGING COASTAL CITIES: PROSPECTS FOR ENHANCING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AND DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES
This paper introduces the challenge of addressing interrelated development issues contextualized to the tourism economy and natural ecosystems in the Philippines with high vulnerability to natural disasters. This is aligned with the emphasis in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and other global commitments advocating institutional paradigm shifts for achieving interrelated targets to protect lives, livelihoods, and generally development gains at both national and local levels. In light of the foregoing, the paper offers a System of Systems (SOS) approach, derived from the wide body of knowledge on Systems Theory, in understanding complex and inter-related issues that coastal cities face. Based on this understanding, to demonstrate its applicability, SOS is applied in two areas, namely, sustainable tourism and disaster risk management. The paper discusses and concludes with a way forward for institutionalizing systems theory application in city management for enhancing governance by improving evidence gathering and strengthening institutional feedback mechanisms.
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