Cross-Cultural Comparison of Self-Esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British-Born Chinese and White Scottish Children

  • Qian Dai Psychological Health and Education Centre, Sichuan University, Chengdu
Keywords: adolescent development, child development, cross-cultural comparison, self-esteem


Given cultural differences in the construct of self-esteem, this study explores self-esteem across four groups of children (Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British-Born Chinese and White Scottish) in three age groups (ages 8, 11 and 14). In total, 464 children participated in the study. The Modified Harter’s Self-Esteem Questionnaire (Hoare, Elton, Greer & Kerley, 1993) was used to measure selfesteem in all four groups of children from six domains. Results reveal significant differences in selfesteem. White Scottish children are found to have the highest self-esteem and Hong Kong Chinese children to have the lowest. Mainland Chinese children have the highest scholastic self-esteem. British-Born Chinese children, though they are an ethnic minority, show positive attitudes towards themselves. From a developmental perspective, there is a different pattern of behavioral self-esteem development across the four cultural groups. Study findings provide new insights into the developmental and cultural differences in children’s self-esteem.


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How to Cite
Dai, Q. (2016). Cross-Cultural Comparison of Self-Esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British-Born Chinese and White Scottish Children. Social Science Asia, 2(1), 1-12. Retrieved from
Research Article